Divergent thesis statement
settled either by automatic deduction from a foreign bank account or by the card holder periodically transferring the required funds from one foreign bank account to another. Criminal money is frequently moved abroad and then cycled through the international payments system to obscure the audit trail. The technique chosen will likely reflect whether the operation is a once-and-for-all, or sporadic, event or something to be conducted on an on-going basis. Yet, there is also a sense in some quarters that the change is being exploited by competitors.
Easy access and a capacity to move money around the system rapidly and with a minimum of formality and regulation are perfect for money-laundering. Case studies in the use of offshore financial centres and bank secrecy jurisdictions The bcci case In July 1991, more than 12 billion in assets of bcci were seized after regulators discovered evidence of widespread fraud.
Similarly, the international community has had to deal with the consequences of allowing a bank with a home office in a jurisdiction with little regulation to operate internationally. The difficulty is that subsequent investigations by law enforcement immediately run up against national sovereignty. The collapse of the bank did not come as a complete surprise. It might also be possible for member countries to develop a system under which the police and prosecutors of one country could be designated to act as police in other countries if they work under the supervision of the other countrys Government. Law enforcement efforts in the best of years recovers amounts in the range of 100 million to 500 million. As noted above, such issues are quite complex and are treated differently around the world. 20 An excellent analysis of the rise and pending decline of the offshore financial sector is in Marcel Cassard, "The role of offshore centers in international financial intermediation" IMF Working Paper (Washington, September 1994). The company in principle may have imputed to its "state of mind" the acts and state of mind of its directors and managers who represent its "directing mind and will". The second count involved convincing the jury not just that the documentation was incomplete but that the client rather than the Jersey director was the person who was in substantive charge of the activities of the company (as testified by witnesses to dealings the company.
Liberal Studies Florida State University
Digital Impact Digital Impact
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