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Flint michigan research paper


flint michigan research paper

OH(aq). Reynolds also pointed out the fact that only three new home developments have been started in the last 18 months. Together, the oxidation and reduction reactions combine to give the full redox reaction: 2 Pb ( s ) O2 ( g ) 2 H2O ( l ) 2 Pb(OH)2 ( s cities use various methods to prevent lead pipes from leaching lead ions into the. 25, 2014, e-mail to the State of Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (mdeq I do not anticipate giving the OK to begin sending water out anytime soon. High lead levels were found in a number of samples four years after all of the lead pipes were replaced in Madison, Wis. Trihalomethanes are a concern because they have been linked with numerous health concerns, including liver, kidney, lung, and heart problems. 0 mg/L as recommended by NSF International (2016). Felton 2016 Flint officials decided in 2013 to join the newly formed Karegnondi Water Authority (KWA which was constructing its own pipeline to transmit raw water from Lake Huron. And at the same time it signifies that this is just another story, told a hundred times before.

As shown in, total trihalomethane (tthm) concentrations at several sampling locations exceeded the 80 g/L regulatory limit during May and August 2014 (. An LSI value less than zero indicates that the solution is undersaturated and calcium carbonate dissolution is favored, and that the water could be corrosive if no other measures were taken to control corrosion. No one knows exactly how many lead pipes are used in the United States, but the number is in the millions. Commonly used indexes could have predicted that the treated Flint River water would likely corrode lead pipes.

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Within weeks, residents were complaining of foul-smelling and discolored water. The chemists who tested the water were skeptical at first. Bench-scale jar testing for trihalomethane (THM) removal was not completed until sometime between January and August 2015 ( City of Flint 2015 ). Although numerous changes were made to the treatment process over the course of the.5 years of treatment, as of November 2014, when the draft Operational Evaluation Report (OER) was published, the treatment train was as shown in ( Lockwood, Andrews, Newman 2014 ). This meant that officials in the city of Flint needed to find a short-term solution while the new pipeline was being built. For example, the solder used to join pipes together is an alloy of tin and lead. Computers have invaded the work sphere replacing the staff. No preliminary corrosion estimates using simple indexes appear in any of the engineering reports, and they do not appear to have been considered during the design process.

English research paper Flint Water Crisis Cardiovascular Diseases



flint michigan research paper


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